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Mc Clellan with staff & dignitaries (from left to right): Gen. Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania immediately responded to Lincoln's call, and the French were also quick to volunteer. The call for volunteers initially was easily met by patriotic Northerners, abolitionists, and even immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals.However, brigades were changed easily as the situation demanded; the regiment was the main form of permanent grouping. Scott was an elderly veteran of the War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War and could not perform his duties effectively. Although he was popular among the soldiers, Mc Clellan was relieved from his position as general-in-chief because of his overcautious strategy and his contentious relationship with his commander-in-chief, President Lincoln.Brigades were usually formed once regiments reached the battlefield, according to where the regiment might be deployed, and alongside which other regiments. (He remained commander of the Army of the Potomac through the Peninsula Campaign and the Battle of Antietam.) His replacement, Major General Henry W. He was famous for his victories in the West when he was appointed lieutenant general and general-in-chief of the Union Army in March 1864. Meade) in delivering the final blows to the Confederacy by engaging Confederate forces in many fierce battles in Virginia, the Overland Campaign, conducting a war of attrition that the larger Union Army was able to survive better than its opponent.Although there were other Confederate armies that surrendered in the following weeks, such as Joseph E.Johnston's in North Carolina, this date was nevertheless symbolic of the end of the bloodiest war in American history, the end of the Confederate States of America, and the beginning of the slow process of Reconstruction.These campaigns were characterized by another strategic notion of Grant's-better known as total war—denying the enemy access to resources needed to continue the war by widespread destruction of its factories and farms along the paths of the invading Union armies.Grant had critics who complained about the high numbers of casualties that the Union Army suffered while he was in charge, but Lincoln would not replace Grant, because, in Lincoln's words: "I cannot spare this man. The decisive victories by Grant and Sherman resulted in the surrender of the major Confederate armies.

Stanton, with the help of an unofficial "War Board" that was established on March 17, 1862. Hitchcock, the chairman, with Department of War bureau chiefs Lorenzo Thomas, Montgomery C. He developed the strategy of coordinated simultaneous thrusts against wide portions of the Confederacy, most importantly the Georgia and Carolinas Campaigns of William Tecumseh Sherman and the Shenandoah Valley campaign of Philip Sheridan.Of the approximately 900 West Point graduates who were then civilians, 400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate.Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283. Lee, who had initially been offered the assignment as commander of a field army to suppress the rebellion. He eventually became the commander of the Confederate army.) The South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers.Lee disapproved of secession, but refused to bear arms against his native state, Virginia, and resigned to accept the position as commander of Virginian C. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers didn´t have this right; which meant that they usually had either to desert or to wait until their enlistment term was over in order to join the Confederate States Army.While the total number of those is unknown, only 26 enlisted men and non-commissioned officers of the regular army are known to have legally left the army to join the Confederate army when the war began.

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